The first initiative to document historic and cultural sites associated with the LGBT community in New York City, illustrating the richness of the city's history and the community's influence on America.
Richmond Barthé, an African-American sculptor who gained prominence during the Harlem Renaissance, created this 8-foot by 80-foot frieze Green Pastures: The Walls of Jericho (1938), which has been located at the Kingsborough Houses since 1941. Considered the most important sculptor of African-American modernism in the first half of the twentieth century, he is known for his portrayals of religious subjects, figures from black history, notable stage and dance performers, and public works.
Richmond Barthé (1901-1989), born in Mississippi, studied painting at the Art Institute of Chicago where he was introduced to sculpture in his senior year. In 1929 he moved to Harlem, at the height of the Harlem Renaissance, where he entered an established network of gay social circles. Although he never publicly revealed his homosexuality, his artwork exploited the black male nude for its political, racial, aesthetic, and erotic significance, and often displayed homoerotic themes.
In 1931, Barthé moved his studio to 236 West 14th Street (façade since altered) to be closer to his racially and economically diverse male and female customers and friends. His most important supporters were lifelong friends, writer Alain Locke and poet Richard Bruce Nugent, who was also his one-time lover. He was also friends with poets Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, and Countee Cullen, cabaret performer Jimmie Daniels, playwright Harold Jackman, photographer Carl Van Vechten, writer Lincoln Kirstein, and artists Paul Cadmus and Jared French.
Barthe’s largest work, the cast-stone frieze Green Pastures: The Walls of Jericho (1938), was originally intended for the Harlem River Houses (1936-37), one of the nation’s first federal public housing projects, that was built for African Americans. He was recruited as part of a team of sculptors commissioned to create public art for the project through the Works Progress Administration. Barthé was interested in creating a site-specific work for the back wall of an amphitheater that would be used by African-American residents. The frieze was inspired by Marc Connelly’s 1930 Pulitzer-Prize winning play The Green Pastures, which portrays episodes from the Old Testament through the eyes of a young African-American child. This was Barthé’s first work in relief and he depicted scenes of African-inspired figures in two 40-foot stylized panels that he titled Exodus and Dance.
Months after the Harlem River Houses were opened, Barthé’s panels were still in storage since the amphitheater project was never built. As a federal employee, he had no control over what was done with his work and in 1941 the panels were installed without his consultation on one of the main walks at the Kingsborough Houses. Barthé was disappointed since, although low-income federal housing, African Americans were not the primary residents and therefore he felt the inspirational power of his work was diminished. Today, residents fondly refer to the work as “The Wall.”
Barthé’s other public works in New York City include the bas-relief effigy on the Arthur Brisbane Monument, located at Central Park’s Fifth Avenue perimeter wall (at East 101st Street), and the busts of George Washington Carver and Booker T. Washington at the Hall of Great Americans, located on the grounds of Bronx Community College. He had numerous celebrities and notables as clients and his portrait busts include Katharine Cornell as Juliet (1942), featuring the actress Katharine Cornell, and cabaret performer Jimmie Daniels. Today, Barthé is represented in the permanent collections of numerous major museums.
In 1947 he moved to Jamaica in the West Indies where he remained until the mid-1960s and then afterwards lived in Europe. Barthé returned to the US in 1977 where he settled in Pasadena, CA. He soon developed a friendship with the actor James Garner who became Barthé’s benefactor and advocate, helping him copyright his works.
Asantewa Boakyewa, Richmond Barthé’s “Green Pastures,” Newsletter of the Center for Africana Studies at Johns Hopkins University, Fall 2008, 5. George E. Haggerty, ed., Encyclopedia of Gay Histories and Cultures (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 2000). Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and Gene Andrew Jarrett, eds., The New Negro: Readings on Race, Representation, and African American Culture, 1892-1938 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007). James Smalls, “Barthé, James Richmond (1901-1989),” GLBTQ Encyclopedia, 2015 (accessed February 18, 2018), bit.ly/2BFTFo3. Marci Reaven and Steve Zeitlin, Hidden New York: A Guide to Places That Matter (New Brunswick: Rivergate Books, 2006). Margaret Rose Vendryes, Barthé: A Life in Sculpture (Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2008). Romare Bearden and Harry Henderson, A History of African American Artists: From 1792 to the Present (New York: Pantheon Books, 1993). Steven Otfinoski, African Americans in the Visual Arts (New York: Facts on File, 2003). [source of pull quote]
Ken Lustbader/NYC LGBT Historic Sites Project, 2018.